Importance of Higher Education in Today’s Modern Society

Education is a very important role in our lives. Everyone has been being educated since the day they were born. There is a rapidly growing demand for a higher education in the world today. Although a higher education is difficult to receive, the rewards of self-improvement, job insurance, a development of character, and social improvements are what is going to satisfy you.

Sure it is hard go to school longer, but learning for personal knowledge will greatly improve you. You learn skills like problem solving which will teach you to figure things out for yourself. A better education will also gain you experience. You would never know what you liked or did not like if you never had a chance to experience it. I do not know about you but I want to make educated decisions in my life. If you don’t know how to make educated decisions, you will never be content with yourself. How good does it feel to outsmart someone when you apply what you have been taught or have been able to help somebody just from the education which you received? Knowledge is a very powerful thing that can change the lives of others and yourself.

With a higher education you are insured that you will have a better paying job. I like being able to spend money freely and a higher education allows you to get the better paying job that will provide this stability. The multi-million dollar businesses are going to pay the big bucks to someone who has the higher education and knows what they are doing rather than the individual who does not have the higher education. A better job will also provide you benefits to a more successful life. Every person I know has said that being successful is raising and supporting a family. I know that if you have a better paying job it will ease the process of providing for you family and make it more enjoyable. Instead of being at work to provide your family with money they need to survive,

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Jan Lokpal Bill

Jan Lokpal Bill version 1.8
An act to create effective anti-corruption and grievance redressal systems at centre so that effective
deterrent is created against corruption and to provide effective protection to whistleblowers.
1. Short title and commencement:- (1) This Act may be called the Anti-Corruption, Grievance
Redressal And Whistleblower Protection Act, 2010.
(2) It shall come into force on the one hundred and twentieth day of its enactment.
2. Definitions:- In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(1) “Action” means any action taken by a public servant in the discharge of his functions as such public
servant and includes decision, recommendation or finding or in any other manner and includes
willful failure or omission to act and all other expressions relating to such action shall be construed
accordingly;
(2) “Allegation” in relation to a public servant includes any affirmation that such public servant-
(a) has indulged in misconduct, if he is a government servant;
(b) has indulged in corruption
(3) “complaint” includes any grievance or allegation or a request by whistleblower for protection and
appropriate action.
(4) “corruption” includes anything made punishable under Chapter IX of the Indian Penal Code or
under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988;
Provided that if any person obtains any benefit from the government by violating any laws or rules,
that person along with the public servants who directly or indirectly helped that person obtain
those benefits, shall be deemed to have indulged in corruption.
(5) “Government” or “Central Government” means Government of India.
(6) “Government Servant” means any person who is or was any time appointed to a civil service or post
in connection with the affairs of the Central Government or High Courts or Supreme Court either on
deputation or permanent or temporary or on contractual employment but would not include the
judges.
(7) “grievance” means a claim by a person that he sustained injustice or undue hardship in
consequence of mal-administration;
(8) “Lokpal” means
a. Benches constituted under this Act and performing their functions as laid down under
various provisions of this Act; or
b. Any officer or employee, exercising its powers and carrying out its functions and
responsibilities, in the manner and to the extent, assigned to it under this Act, or under
various rules, regulations or orders made under various provisions of this Act.
c. For all other purposes, the Chairperson and members acting collectively as a body;
(9) “Mal-administration” means action taken or purporting to have been taken in the exercise of
administrative function in any case where,-
a. such action or the administrative procedure or practice governing such action is
unreasonable, unjust, oppressive or improperly discriminatory; or
b. there has been willful negligence or undue delay in taking such action or the administrative
procedure or practice governing such action involves undue delay;
(10) “Misconduct” means misconduct as defined in CCS Conduct Rules and which has vigilance angle.
(11) “public authority” means any authority or body or institution of self- government established or
constituted—
a. by or under the Constitution;
b. by any other law made by Parliament;
c. by notification issued or order made by the Government, and includes any body owned,
controlled or substantially financed by the Government;
(12) “Public servant” means a person who is or was at any time,-
(a) the Prime Minister;
(b) a Minister;
(c) a Member of Parliament;
(d) Judges of High Courts and Supreme Court;
(e) a Government servant;
(f) the Chairman or Vice-Chairman (by whatever name called) or a member of a local
authority in the control of the Central Government or a statutory body or corporation
established by or under any law of the Parliament of India, including a co-operative
society, or a Government Company within the meaning of section 617 of the
Companies Act, 1956 and members of any Committee or Board, statutory or nonstatutory,
constituted by the Government;
(g) Such other authorities as the Central Government may, by notification, from time to
time, specify;
(13) “Vigilance angle” includes –
(a) All acts of corruption
(b) Gross or willful negligence; recklessness in decision making; blatant violations of systems and
procedures; exercise of discretion in excess, where no ostensible/public interest is evident;
failure to keep the controlling authority/superiors informed in time
(c) Failure/delay in taking action, if under law the government servant ought to do so, against
subordinates on complaints of corruption or dereliction of duties or abuse of office by the
subordinates
(d) Indulging in discrimination through one’s conduct, directly or indirectly.
(e) Victimizing Whistle Blowers
(f) Any undue/unjustified delay in the disposal of a case, perceived after considering all relevant
factors, would reinforce a conclusion as to the presence of vigilance angle in a case.
(g) Make unfair investigation or enquiry to either unduly help culprits or fabricate the innocent.
(h) Any other matter as notified from time to time by Lokpal
(14) “Whistleblower” is any person who faces threat of (1) professional harm, including but not limited
to illegitimate transfers, denial of promotions, denial of appropriate perks, departmental
proceedings, discrimination or (2) physical harm or (3) is actually subjected to such harm; because
of either making a complaint to Lokpal under this Act or for filing an application under Right to
Information Act.
3. Establishment of the institution of Lokpal and appointment of Lokpal:
(1) There shall be an institution known as Lokpal which shall consist of one Chairperson and ten
members along with its officers and employees. The Lokpal shall be headed by its Chairperson.
(2) The Chairperson and members of Lokpal shall be selected in such manner as laid down in this
Act.
(3) A person appointed as Chairperson or member of Lokpal shall, before entering upon his office,
make and subscribe before the President, an oath or affirmation in the form as prescribed.
(4) The Government shall appoint the Chairperson and members of the first Lokpal and set up the
institution with all its logistics and assets within six months of enactment of this Act.
(5) The Government shall fill up a vacancy of the Chairperson or a member caused due to
a) Retirement, 3 months before the member or the Chairperson retires.
b) Any other unforeseen reason, within a month of such vacancy.
Chairperson and Members of Lokpal
4. The Chairperson and members of Lokpal not to have held certain offices- The Chairperson and
members of Lokpal shall not be serving or former member of either the Parliament or the Legislature of
any State and shall not hold any office or trust of profit (other than the office as Chairperson or
member) or would have ever been connected with any political party or carry on any business or
practice any profession and accordingly, before he enters upon his office, a person appointed as the
Chairperson or member of Lokpal shall-
(i) if he holds any office of trust or profit, resign from such office; or
(ii) if he is carrying on any business, sever his connection with the conduct and
management of such business; or
(iii) if he is practicing any profession, suspend practice of such profession.
(iv) If he is associated directly or indirectly with any other activity, which is likely cause
conflict of interest in the performance of his duties in Lokpal, he should suspend his
association with that activity.
Provided that if even after the suspension, the earlier association of that person with
such activity is likely to adversely affect his performance at Lokpal, that person shall
not be appointed as a member or Chairperson of Lokpal.
5. Term of office and other conditions of service of Lokpal– (1) A person appointed as the Chairperson
or member of Lokpal shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his
office;
Provided further that.-
(a) the Chairperson or member of Lokpal may, by writing under his hand addressed to the
President, resign his office;
(b) the Chairperson or member may be removed from office in the manner provided in
this Act.
(2) There shall be paid to the Chairperson and each member every month a salary equal to that of the
Chief Justice of India and that of the judge of the Supreme Court respectively;
(3) The allowances and pension payable to and other conditions of service of the Chairperson or a
member shall be such as may be prescribed;
Provided that the allowances and pension payable to and other conditions of service of the
Chairperson or members shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
(4) The administrative expenses of the office of the Lokpal including all salaries, allowances and pensions
payable to or in respect of persons serving in that office, shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of
India.
(5) There shall be a separate fund by the name of “Lokpal fund” in which penalties/fines imposed by the
Lokpal shall be deposited and in which 10% of the loss of Public Money detected/prevented on account
of investigations by Lokpal shall also be deposited by the Government. Disposal of such fund shall be
completely at the discretion of the Lokpal and such fund shall be used only for
enhancement/upgradation/extension of the infrastructure of Lokpal.
(6) The Chairperson or members shall not be eligible for appointment on any position in Government of
India or Government of any state or for fighting elections, if he has ever held the position of the
Chairperson or a member for any period.
Provided however that a member or Chairperson may be reappointed for one more term or a member
may be appointed as the Chairperson, however, that any person shall not serve for more than a total of
two terms.
6. Appointment of the Chairperson and members:
1. The Chairperson and members shall be appointed by the President on the recommendation of a
selection committee.
2. Following persons shall not be eligible to become Chairman or Member in Lokpal:
(a) Any person who was ever chargesheeted for any offence under IPC or PC Act or was ever
penalized under CCS Conduct Rules.
(b) Any person who is less than 40 years in age.
3. At least four members of Lokpal shall have legal background.
4. The members and Chairperson should have unimpeachable integrity and should have
demonstrated their resolve and efforts to fight against corruption in the past.
5. A selection committee consisting of the following shall be set up:
a. The Chairpersons of both Houses of Parliament
b. Two senior most judges of Supreme Court
c. Two senior most Chief Justices of High Courts.
d. All Nobel Laureates of Indian Origin
e. Chairperson of National Human Rights Commission
f. Last two Magsaysay Award winners of Indian origin
g. Comptroller and Auditor General of India
h. Chief Election Commissioner
i. Bharat Ratna Award winners
j. After the first set of selection process, the outgoing members and Chairperson of
Lokpal.
6. The seniormost judge of Supreme Court shall act as the Chairperson of the selection committee.
7. The following selection process shall be followed:
a. Recommendations shall be invited through open advertisements in prescribed format.
b. Each person recommending shall be expected to justify the selection of his candidate
giving examples from the past achievements of the candidate.
c. The list of candidates along with their recommendations received in the format
mentioned above shall be displayed on a website.
d. Each member of the selection committee, on the basis of the above material, shall
recommend such number of names as there are vacancies.
e. A priority list shall be prepared with the candidate receiving recommendations from
maximum number of members of selection committee at the top. The candidates
recommended by same number of members shall be treated at par.
f. This priority list shall be displayed on the website.
g. Around three times the names as there are vacancies, shall be shortlisted from the top.
h. Public feedback shall be invited on the shortlisted names by putting these names on the
website.
i. The selection committee may decide to use any means to collect more information
about the background and past achievements of the shortlisted candidates.
j. Selection committee shall invite shortlisted candidates for discussions, video recordings
of which shall be made public.
k. All the material obtained so far about the candidates shall be made available to each
member of the selection committee in advance. The members shall make their own
assessment of each candidate.
l. The selection committee shall meet and discuss the material so received about each
candidate. The final selections for the Chairperson and members shall be made
preferably through consensus.
Provided that if three or more members, for reasons to be recorded in writing, object to
the selection of any member, he shall not be selected.
m. All meetings of selection committee shall be video recorded and shall be made public.
8. The Prime Minister shall recommend the names finalized by the selection committee to the
President immediately, who shall order such appointments within a month of receipt of the
same.
9. If any of the members of the selection committee retires while a selection process is going on,
that member will continue on the selection committee till the end of that process.
7. Removal of Chairperson or members-
(1) The Chairperson or any member shall not be removed from his office except by an order of the
President.
(2) They can be removed on one or more of the following grounds:
a. Proved misbehavior
b. Professional or physical incapacity
c. If he is adjudged to be insolvent
d. Has been charged of an offence which involves moral turpitude
e. If he engages during his term of office in any paid employment outside the duties of his
office
f. Has acquired such financial interests or other interests which are likely to affect
prejudicially his functions as member or Chairperson.
g. If he is guided by considerations extraneous to the merits of the case either to favor
someone or to implicate someone through any act of omission or commission.
h. If any member or Chairperson tries to or actually unduly influences any government
functionary.
i. If he commits any act of omission or commission which is punishable under Prevention
of Corruption Act or is a misconduct.
j. If a member or the Chairperson in any way, concerned or interested in any contract or
agreement made by or on behalf of the Government of India or participates in any way
in the profit thereof or in any benefit or emolument arising there from otherwise than
as a member and in common with the other members of an incorporated company, he
shall be deemed to be guilty of misbehavior.
(3) The following process shall be followed for the removal of any member or Chairperson:
(a) Any person may move an application/petition before the Supreme Court seeking removal of
one or more of the members of Chairperson of Lokpal alleging one or more of the grounds for removal
and providing evidence for the same.
(b) Supreme Court will hear the matter by a bench of three or more Judges on receipt of such
petition and may take one or more of the following steps:
(i) order an investigation to be done by a Special Investigation Team appointed by the
Supreme Court if a prima facie case is made out and if the matter cannot be judged based on
affidavits of the parties. The Special Investigation Team shall submit its report within three
months.
(ii) Pending investigations under sub-clause (i) by Special Investigation Team, the
Supreme Court may decide to order withdrawal of part or complete work from that member.
(iii) dismiss the petition if no case is made out
(iv) if the grounds are proved, recommend to the President for removal of the said
member or Chairperson
(v) direct registration and investigation of cases with appropriate agencies if there is
prima facie case of commission of an offence punishable under Prevention of Corruption
Act.
(c) The three judge bench shall be constituted by a panel of five seniormost judges of the
Supreme Court.
Provided that if there are any proceedings going on against any judge in Lokpal, he shall not
be a part of either the panel or the bench.
(d) The Supreme Court shall not dismiss such petitions in liminae.
(e) If the Supreme Court concludes that the petition has been made with mischievous or
malafide motives, the Court may order imposition of fine or imprisonment upto one year
against the complainant.
(f) On receipt of a recommendation from the Supreme Court under this section, the Prime
Minister shall recommend it to the President immediately and the President shall order
removal of said members within a month of receipt of the same.
Powers and Functions of Lokpal
8. Functions of Lokpal: (1) Lokpal shall be responsible for receiving:
(a) Complaints where there are allegations of such acts of omission or commission which are
punishable under Prevention of Corruption Act
(b) Complaints where there are allegations of misconduct by a government servant
(c) Grievances
(d) Complaints from whistleblowers
(2) Lokpal, after getting such enquiries and investigations done as it deems fit, may take one or more of
the following actions:
a. Close the case if prima facie, the complaint is not made out or
b. Initiate prosecution against public servants as well as those private entities which
are party to the act
c. Order imposition of appropriate penalties under CCS Conduct Rules
Provided that if an officer is finally convicted under Prevention of Corruption
Act, major penalty of dismissal shall be imposed on such government servant.
d. Order cancellation or modification of a license or lease or permission or contract or
agreement, which was the subject matter of investigation.
e. Blacklist the concerned firm or company or contractor or any other entity involved
in that act of corruption.
f. Issue appropriate directions to appropriate authorities for redressal of grievance in
such time and in such manner as is specified in the order.
g. Invoke its powers under this Act if its orders are not duly complied with and ensure
due compliance of its orders.
h. Take necessary action to provide protection to a whistleblower as per various
provisions of this Act.
(3) Suo moto initiate appropriate action under this Act if any case, of the nature mentioned in clauses
(1), (2), (3) or (4), comes to the knowledge of the Lokpal from any source.
(4) Issue such directions, as are necessary, from time to time, to appropriate authorities so as to make
such changes in their work practices, administration or other systems so as to reduce the scope and
possibility for corruption, misconduct and public grievances.
(5) Lokpal shall be deemed to be “Disciplinary authority” or “appointing authority” for the purpose of
imposing penalties under CCS Conduct Rules.
(6) Section 19 of Prevention of Corruption Act shall be deleted.
(7) Section 197 of CrPC shall not apply to any proceedings under this Act. All permissions, which need to
be sought for initiating investigations or for initiating prosecutions under any Act shall be deemed to
have been granted once Lokpal grants such permissions.
9. Issue of Search Warrant, etc.- (1) Where, in consequence of information in his possession, the Lokpal
(a) has reason to believe that any person. –
(i) to whom a summon or notice under this Act, has, been or might be issued,
will not or would not produce or cause to be produced any property, document
or thing which will be necessary or useful for or relevant to any inquiry or other
proceeding to be conducted by him;
(ii) is in possession of any money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article or
thing and such money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article or thing
represents either wholly or partly income or property which has not been
disclosed to the authorities for the purpose of any law or rule in force which
requires such disclosure to be made; or
(b) considers that the purposes of any inquiry or other proceedings to be conducted by him will
be served by a general search or inspection,
he may by a search warrant authorize any Police officer not below the rank of an Inspector of Police to
conduct a search or carry out an inspection in accordance therewith and in particular to, –
(i) enter and search any building or place where he has reason to suspect that such property,
document, money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article or thing is kept;
(ii) search any person who is reasonably suspected of concealing about his person any article
for which search should be made;
(iii) break open the lock of any door, box, locker safe, almirah or other receptacle for
exercising the powers conferred by sub-clause (i) where the keys thereof are not available.
Seize any such property, document, money, bullion, jewellery or other valuable article or thing
found as a result of such search;
(iv) place marks of identification on any property or document or make or cause to be made;
extracts or copies therefrom; or
(v) make a note or an inventory of any such property, document, money, bullion, Jewellery or
other valuable article or thing.
(2) The provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, relating to search and seizure shall apply, so
far as may be, to searches and seizures under sub-section (1).
(3) A warrant issued under sub-section (1) shall for all purposes, be deemed to be a warrant issued by a
court under section 93 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
10. Evidence – (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, for the purpose of any investigation (including
the preliminary inquiry, if any, before such investigation) under this Act, the Lokpal may require any
public servant or any other person who, in his opinion is able to furnish information or produce
documents relevant to the investigation, to furnish any such information or produce any such
document.
(2) For the purpose of any such investigation (including the preliminary inquiry) the Lokpal shall
have all the powers of a civil court while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 , in respect
of the following matters, namely:-
(a) Summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;
(b) Requiring the discovery and production of any document;
(c) Receiving evidence on affidavits;
(d) Requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office ;
(e) Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents ;
(f) ordering payment of compensatory cost in respect of a false or vexatious claim or
defence;
(g) ordering cost for causing delay;
(h) Such other matters as may be prescribed.
(3) Any proceeding before the Lokpal shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding with in the
meaning of section 193 of the Indian Penal Code.
11. Reports of Lokpal, etc. (1) The Chairperson of Lokpal shall present annually a consolidated report in
prescribed format on its performance to the President.
(2) On receipt of the annual report, the President shall cause a copy thereof together with an
explanatory memorandum to be laid before each House of the Parliament.
(3) The Lokpal shall publish every month on its website the list of cases disposed with brief details of
each such case, outcome and action taken or proposed to be taken in that case. It shall also publish lists
of all cases received by the Lokpal during the previous month, cases disposed and cases which are
pending.
12. Lokpal to be a deemed police officer: (1) For the purposes of section 36 of Criminal Procedure Code,
the Chairperson, members of Lokpal and the officers in investigation wing of Lokpal shall be deemed to
be police officers.
(2) While investigating any offence under Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, they shall be competent to
investigate any offence under any other law in the same case.
13. Powers in case of non-compliance of orders: (1) Each order of Lokpal shall clearly specify the names
of the officials who are required to execute that order, the manner in which it should be executed and
the time period within which that order should be complied with.
(2) If the order is not complied with within the time or in the manner directed, Lokpal may decide to
impose a fine on the officials responsible for the non-compliance of its orders.
(3) The Drawing and Disbursing Officer of that Department shall be directed to deduct such amount of
fine as is clearly specified by the Lokpal in its order made in sub-section (2) from the salaries of the
officers specified in the order.
Provided that no penalty shall be imposed without giving a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
Provided that if the Drawing and Disbursing Officer fails to deduct the salary as specified in the said
order, he shall make himself liable for a similar penalty.
(4) In order to get its orders complied with, the Lokpal shall have, and exercise the same jurisdiction
powers and authority in respect of contempt of itself as a High court has and may exercise, and,
for this purpose, the provisions of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 (Central Act 70 of 1971)
shall have the effect subject to the modification that the references therein to the High Court
shall be construed as including a reference to the Lokpal.
13A. Special Judges under section 4 of Prevention of Corruption Act: On an annual basis, Lokpal shall
make an assessment of the number of Special Judges required under section 4 of Prevention of
Corruption Act 1988 in each area and the Government shall appoint such number of Judges within three
months of receipt of such recommendation.
Provided that Lokpal shall recommend such number of Special Judges so that trial in each case under
this Act is completed within a year.
13B. Issue of Letter Rogatory: A bench of Lokpal shall have powers to issue Letters Rogatory in any case
pending with Lokpal.
Functioning of Lokpal
14. Functioning of Lokpal: (1) The Chairperson shall be responsible for overall administration and
supervision of the institution of Lokpal.
(2) All policy level decisions including formulation of regulations, developing internal systems for the
functioning of Lokpal, assigning functions to various officials in Lokpal, delegation of powers to various
functionaries in Lokpal etc shall be taken by the Chairperson and the members collectively as a body.
(3) The Chairperson shall have an annual meeting with the Prime Minister to assess the needs of Lokpal
for finances and manpower. Lokpal shall be provided resources by the Government on the basis of
outcome of this meeting.
(4) Lokpal shall function in benches of three or more members. Benches shall be constituted randomly
and cases shall be assigned to them randomly by computer. Each bench shall consist of at least one
member with legal background.
(5) Such benches shall be responsible for
(i) granting permission to close any case after a preliminary enquiry
(ii) granting permission to either close a case after investigations or issuing orders imposing
penalties under CCS Conduct Rules and/or for initiating prosecution in that case.
(iii) Issuing orders under section 28 and section 13B.
(6) Lokpal may decide to initiate investigations into any case suo moto also.
(7) The decision to initiate investigation or prosecution against any member of the Cabinet or any judge
of High Court or Supreme Court shall be taken in a meeting of all the existing members and the
Chairperson. Minutes and records of such meetings shall be made public.
15. Making a complaint to the Lokpal: (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, any person may make a
complaint under this Act to the Lokpal.
Provided that in case of a grievance, if the person aggrieved is dead or for any reason, unable to
act for himself, the complaint may be made or if it is already made may be continued by his legal
representatives or by any other person who is authorized by him in writing in this behalf.
(2) A complaint could be on a plain paper but should contain all such details as prescribed by Lokpal.
(3) On receipt of a complaint, the Lokpal shall decide whether it is an allegation or a grievance or a
request for whistleblower protection or a mixture of two or more of these.
(4) Every complaint shall have to be compulsorily disposed off by the Lokpal.
Provided that no complaint, other than those which are anonymous or pseudonymous, shall be closed
without hearing the complainant.
16. Matters which may be investigated by the Lokpal– Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Lokpal
may investigate any action which is taken by or with the general or specific approval of a public servant
where a complaint involving a grievance or an allegation is made in respect of such action.
Provided that the Lokpal may also investigate such action suo moto or if it is referred to it by the
government, if such action can be or could have been in his recorded opinion, subject of a grievance or
an allegation.
17. Matters not subject to investigation:- (1) The Lokpal shall not conduct any investigation under this
Act in case of a grievance in respect of any action-
(i) if the complainant has or had, any remedy by way of appeal, revision, review or any other
remedy before any other authority provided in any other law and he has not availed of the
same.
(ii) Taken by a judicial or quasi-judicial body, unless the complainant alleges malafides
(iii) If the substance of the entire grievance is pending before any court or quasi-judicial body
of competent jurisdiction.
(iv) any grievance where there is inordinate and inexplicable delay.
(2) Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorising the Lokpal to investigate any action which is
taken by or with the approval of the Presiding Officer of either House of Parliament.
(3) The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to the provisions of any other enactment or any rule or
law under which any remedy by way of appeal, revision, review or in any other manner is available to a
person making a complaint under this Act in respect of any action and nothing in this Act shall limit or
affect the right of such person to avail of such remedy.
(4) Nothing in this section shall bar Lokpal from entertaining a complaint making an allegation of
misconduct or corruption or a complaint from a whistleblower seeking protection.
18. Provisions relating to complaints and investigations-
(i) (a) The Lokpal, on receipt of a complaint in the nature of an allegation or a grievance or a
combination of the two, or in a case initiated on his own motion, may on perusing the
documents, either decide to proceed to enquire or investigate into that complaint or decide,
to make such preliminary inquiry before proceeding to enquire or investigate into such
complaint or direct any other person to make such preliminary inquiry as it deems fit for
ascertaining whether there exists reasonable ground for conducting the investigation. The
outcome of such preliminary enquiry, and if the complaint is being closed along with
reasons for the same and all material collected during preliminary enquiry, shall be
communicated to the complainant.
Provided that if any case is closed, all documents related thereto shall thereafter be
treated as public. Every month, a list of all such cases shall be put on the website with
reasons for closing a case. All material connected with such closed cases will be provided to
anyone seeking it under Right to Information Act.
Provided further that if the complaint contains verifiable and specific information about
misconduct or corruption, then that case shall not be rejected even if the complaint is
anonymous.
Provided further that no complaint of allegation shall be rejected by questioning the
motives or intention of the complainant.
Provided further that all hearings before Lokpal shall be video recorded and shall be
available to any member of the public on payment of copying costs.
(b) The procedure for preliminary enquiry of a complaint shall be such as the Lokpal deems
appropriate in the circumstances of the case and in particular, the Lokpal may, if it deems
necessary to do so, call for the comments of the public servant concerned.
Provided that the preliminary enquiry should be completed and a decision taken whether
to close a case or to proceed with investigations within one month of receipt of any
complaint.
(ii) Where the Lokpal proposes, either directly or after making preliminary inquiry, to conduct
any investigation under this Act, he.-
(a) may make such order as to the safe custody of documents relevant to the
investigation, as it deems fit.
(b) at appropriate stage of investigations or in the end, it shall forward a copy of the
complaint, its findings and copy of the material relied upon to the concerned public
servant and the complainant,
(c) shall afford to such public servant and the complainant an opportunity to offer
comments and be heard.
Provided that such hearing shall be held in public, except in such rare circumstances, to
be recorded in writing, will it be held in camera.
(iii) The conduct of an investigation under this Act against a Public servant in respect of any
action shall not affect such action, or any power or duty of any other public servant to take
further action with respect to any matter subject to the investigation.
(iv) If, during the course of preliminary inquiry or investigation under this Act, the Lokpal is
prima facie satisfied that the allegation or grievance in respect of any action is likely to be
sustained either wholly or partly, he may, through an interim order, direct the public servant
concerned to stay the implementation or enforcement of the decision or action complained
against, or to take such mandatory or preventive action, on such terms and conditions, as he
may specify in his order to prevent further harm from taking place.
(v) The Lokpal, either during the course of investigations, if it is satisfied that prosecution is
likely to be initiated in that case, or at the end of the investigations at the time of initiating
prosecution, shall make a list of moveable and immoveable assets of all the accused in that
case and shall notify the same. No transfer of the same shall be permitted after such
notification. In the event of final conviction, the court shall be empowered to recover loss
determined under section 19 of this Act from this property, in addition to other measures.
(vi) If during the course of investigation or enquiry into a complaint, Lokpal feels that
continuance of a public servant in that position could adversely affect the course of
investigations or enquiry or that the said person is likely to impact evidence or witnesses,
the Lokpal may issue appropriate orders including transfer of that public servant from that
position or his suspension.
Provided that such orders shall not be passed against the Prime Minister.
(vii) In case of a grievance, the Lokpal may issue interim orders to the appropriate authority
recommending grant of interim relief to the complainant if he is satisfied at any stage of
preliminary inquiry on investigation that the complainant has sustained injustice or undue
hardship in consequence of any decision or action of a public servant.
(viii) The Lokpal may, at any stage of inquiry or investigation under this Act, direct through an
interim order, appropriate authorities to take such action as is necessary, including
suspension of a government servant, pending inquiry or investigation.-
(i) to safeguard wastage or damage of public property or public revenue by the
administrative acts of the public servant;
(ii) to prevent further acts of misconduct by the public servant;
(iii) to prevent the public servant from secreting the assets allegedly acquired by him by
corrupt means;
(ix) Where after investigation into a complaint, the Lokpal is satisfied that the complaint
involving an allegation against the public servant is substantiated and that the public servant
concerned should not continue to hold the post held by him, the Lokpal shall pass orders to
that effect. In case of public servant being a Minister, Lokpal shall make such
recommendation to the President, who shall decide either to accept such recommendation
or reject it within a month of its receipt.
Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to the Prime Minister.
(x) If, after enquiry into a grievance and after affording reasonable opportunity of being heard
to both the complainant and the public authority, the Lokpal is satisfied that such grievance
is substantiated either wholly or partly, he shall,
i. Pass appropriate orders directing appropriate authorities to redress the grievance
in a manner and within the time prescribed in the order, and
ii. Direct the appropriate authorities to deduct from the salary of the officials
mentioned in the order, such penalty amounts as are directed by Lokpal , which
shall not be less than Rs 250 per day of delay calculated from day the time limit
mentioned in citizens’ charter for redressing that grievance got over, and
iii. Direct the appropriate authorities to compensate the complainant with such
amounts as mentioned in the order.
Provided that any grievance shall be disposed within 15 days of its receipt.
Provided further that if it relates to life and liberty of a person or if the matter is such as to
warrant immediate attention and the Lokpal is so satisfied, the same shall be disposed
within 48 hours.
(xi) All records and information of Lokpal shall be public and shall be provided under Right to
Information Act, even at the stage of investigation or enquiry, unless release of such
information would adversely affect the process of enquiry or investigation.
Provided that no information in any case shall be withheld under Right to Information
Act after the completion of enquiry or investigation.
Recovery of Loss to the Government and punishments
19. Recovery of loss to the Government: If a person is convicted of an offence under Prevention of
Corruption Act, then the trial court will also quantify the loss caused to the government and apportion
that amount to various convicts from whom this money must be recovered as arrears of land revenue.
19A. Punishments for offences: For offences mentioned in Chapter III of Prevention of Corruption Act,
punishment shall not be less than five years which may extend upto life imprisonment.
Provided that if the accused is any officer of the rank of Joint Secretary in the state or above or a
Minister, the punishment shall not be less than ten years.
Provided further that if the offence is of the nature mentioned in proviso to section 2(4) of this Act and if
the beneficiary is any corporate house, in addition to other punishments mentioned in this Act and
under Prevention of Corruption Act, a fine amounting to five times the loss caused to the government
shall be recovered from the accused and the recovery may be done from the assets of the company and
from the personal assets of all Directors of the company, if the assets of the accused are inadequate.
Whistleblower protection
20. Protection of Whistleblower: (1) A whistleblower may write to Lokpal seeking protection from
threat of physical or professional victimization or if he has been subjected to such professional or
physical victimization.
(2) On receiving such a complaint, Lokpal shall take following steps:
(a) Threat of professional victimization: Lokpal shall conduct appropriate enquiries and if it feels
that there is a real threat to the person and the threat is on account of that person having made
an allegation under this Act, then the Lokpal shall pass appropriate orders, as soon as possible
but in not more than a month of receipt of such complaint, directing appropriate authorities to
take such steps as directed by the Lokpal.
(b) If a person complains that he has already been victimized professionally on account of
making an allegation under this Act, Lokpal shall, after conducting enquiries, if he is of the
opinion that the victimization is indeed because of that person’s having made an allegation
under this Act, pass appropriate orders, as soon as possible but in not more than a month,
directing appropriate authorities to take such steps as directed by the Lokpal.
Provided that for clause (a) Lokpal may, but for clause (b) the Lokpal shall, also issue
orders imposing penalties under CCS Conduct Rules against the officer or officials who issued
threats or caused victimization.
Provided further that no such penalties shall be imposed without giving an opportunity
of being heard to the affected officials.
(c) Threat of physical victimization: Lokpal shall conduct appropriate enquiries and if it feels that
there is a real threat to the person and the threat is on account of that person having made an
allegation under this Act or for having filed an RTI application to any public authority covered
under this Act, then notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, the Lokpal shall pass
appropriate orders, as soon as possible but in not more than a week, directing appropriate
authorities, including police, to take such steps as directed by the Lokpal to provide adequate
security to that person, to register criminal cases against those who are issuing threats and also
to take all such steps necessary to mitigate circumstances leading to such threat.
Provided that if the threat is imminent, Lokpal may decide to act immediately, within a
few hours to prevent physical assault on that person.
(d) If a person complains that he has already been physically assaulted on account of making an
allegation under this Act and if Lokpal is satisfied after conducting enquiries that the person has
been assaulted because of his having made an allegation under this Act or for filing an RTI
application in any of the public authorities covered under this Act, then notwithstanding
anything else contained in any other law, the Lokpal shall pass such orders, as soon as possible
but in not more than 24 hours, directing the concerned authorities to take such steps as
directed by the Lokpal to provide adequate security to that person, to register criminal cases
and also to ensure that no further harm visits on that person.
(e) If the whistleblower has alleged an act punishable under Prevention of Corruption Act, then
for cases under clause (c), Lokpal may and for cases under clause (d), the Lokpal shall, assign the
allegations made by that person to a special team, put it on a fast track and complete
investigations in that case in not more than a month.
(f) If the whistleblower has alleged an act punishable under any law other than the Prevention
of Corruption Act, then for cases under clause (c), Lokpal may and for cases under clause (d), the
Lokpal shall, direct the agency which has the powers to enforce that law to assign the
allegations made by the whistleblower to a special team, put it on a fast track and complete
investigations in that case in such time as directed by the Lokpal.
(g) Lokpal shall have the powers to issue directions to appropriate agencies in the cases covered
under clause (f), monitor such investigations and if necessary, issue directions to that agency to
do the investigations in the manner as directed by the Lokpal.
(3) If any complainant requests that his identity should be kept secret, Lokpal shall ensure the same.
Lokpal shall prescribe detailed procedures on how such complainants shall be dealt with.
(4) Lokpal shall Issue orders to the Public Authorities to make necessary changes in their policies and
practices to prevent recurrence of victimization.
Grievance Redressal Systems
21. Citizens’ Charters: (1) Each public authority shall be responsible for ensuring the preparation and
implementation of Citizens Charter, within a reasonable time, and not exceeding one year from the
coming into force of this Act.
(2) Every Citizens Charter shall enumerate the commitments of the respective public authority to the
citizens, officer responsible for meeting each such commitment and the time limit with in which the
commitment shall be met.
(3) Each public authority shall designate an official called Public Grievance Redressal Officer, whom a
complainant should approach for any violation of the Citizens Charter.
(4) Every public authority shall review and revise its Citizens Charter at least once every year through a
process of public consultation.
(5) Lokpal may direct any public authority to make such changes in their citizens’ charter as are
mentioned in that order.
(6) No grievance shall be accepted by Lokpal if 15 days have not elapsed after submission of complaint
by the complainant with the Public Grievance redressal Officer of that Public Authority.
Provided that if Lokpal feels that considering the gravity or urgency of the grievance, it is
necessary to do so, the Lokpal may decide to accept such grievance earlier also.
Employees and staff and authorities in Lokpal
22. Chief Vigilance Officer: (1) There shall be a Chief Vigilance Officer in each public authority to be
selected and appointed by Lokpal.
(2) He shall not be from the same public authority.
(3) He shall be a person of impeccable integrity and ability to take proactive measures against
corruption.
(4) He shall be responsible for accepting complaints against any public authority and shall transfer the
complaints related to other public authorities within two days of receipt.
(5) He shall be responsible for carrying out all such responsibilities as assigned to him from time to time
by Lokpal including dealing with complaints in the manner as laid down by Lokpal from time to time.
Provided that the complaints which require investigations under Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 shall
be transferred to the Investigative wing of Lokpal.
Provided further that the complaints, other than grievances, against officers of the level of Joint
Secretary or above shall not be dealt by the Chief Vigilance Officer and shall be transferred to the
Lokpal, who shall set up a committee of Chief Vigilance Officers of three other public authorities to
enquire into such complaint.
(6) All the grievances shall be received and disposed by Chief Vigilance Officer on behalf of Lokpal, if the
citizen fails to get satisfactory redressal from Public Grievance Officer under section 21 of this Act.
23. Staff of Lokpal, etc.- (1) There shall be such officers and employees as may be prescribed to assist
the Lokpal in the discharge of their functions under this Act.
(2) The number and categories of officers and employees shall be decided by the Lokpal in
consultation with the government.
(3) The categories, recruitment and conditions of service of the officers and employees referred
in sub-section (1) including such special conditions or special pay as may be necessary for enabling them
to act without fear in the discharge of their functions, shall be such as may be prescribed according to
the recommendations of Lokpal.
Provided that no official, whose integrity is in doubt, shall be considered for being posted in
Lokpal.
Provided further that all officers and employees, who work in Lokpal on deputation or otherwise
shall be eligible for the same terms and conditions as prescribed under this clause.
(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Lokpal may for the purpose of
conducting investigations under this Act utilize the services of.-
(a) any officer or investigating agency of the Central Government; or
(b) any officer or investigating agency of any other Government with the prior
concurrence of that Government; or
(c) any person or any other agency.
(5) The officers and other employees referred to in sub-section (1) shall be under the
administrative and disciplinary control of the Lokpal:
(6) Lokpal shall have the powers to choose its own officials. Lokpal may enlist officials on
deputation from other government agencies for a fixed tenure or it may enlist officials on permanent
basis from other government agencies or it may appoint people from outside on permanent basis or on
a fixed tenure basis.
(7) The staff and officers shall be entitled to such pay scales and other allowances, which may be
different and more than the ordinary pay scales in the Central Government, as are decided by the Lokpal
from time to time, in consultation with the Prime Minister, so as to attract honest and efficient people
to work in Lokpal.
24. Repeal and savings – (1) The Central Vigilance Commission Act shall stand repealed.
(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, any act or thing done under the said Act shall be deemed to have been
done under this Act and may be continued and completed under the corresponding provisions of this
Act.
(3) All enquiries and investigations and other disciplinary proceedings pending before the Central
Vigilance Commission and which have not been disposed of, shall stand transferred to and be continued
by the Lokpal as if they were commenced before him under this Act.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any Act, the posts of the Secretary and other Officers and
Employees of the Central Vigilance Commission are hereby abolished and they are hereby appointed as
the Secretary and other officers and employees of the Lokpal. The salaries, allowances and other terms
and conditions of services of the said Secretary, officers and other employees shall, until they are varied,
be the same as to which they were entitled to immediately before the commencement of this Act.
(5) All vigilance administration under the control of all Departments of Central Government, Ministries
of the Central Government, corporations established by or under any Central Act, Government
companies, societies and local authorities owned or controlled by the Central Government shall stand
transferred, alongwith its personnel, assets and liabilities to Lokpal for all purposes.
(6) The personnel working in vigilance wings of the agencies mentioned in sub-section (5) shall be
deemed to be on deputation to Lokpal for a period of five years from the date they are transferred to
Lokpal. However, Lokpal may decide to repatriate any one of them anytime.
(7) That Department from where any personnel have been transferred to Lokpal under sub-section (5),
shall cease to have any control over the administration and functions of transferred personnel.
(8) Lokpal shall rotate the personnel and create vigilance wing of each department in such a way that no
personnel from the same department get posted for vigilance functions in the same department.
(9) No person shall be employed with Lokpal against whom any vigilance enquiry or any criminal case is
pending at the time of being considered.
25. Investigation Wing of Lokpal: (1) There shall be an investigation wing at Lokpal.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 17 of Prevention of Corruption Act, such officers of
Investigation wing, upto the level as decided by Lokpal, shall have, in relation to the investigation and
arrest of persons throughout India, in connection with investigation of complaints under this Act, all the
powers, duties, privileges and liabilities which members of Delhi Special Police Establishment have in
connection with the investigation of offences committed therein.
(3) That part of Delhi Special Police Establishment, in so far as it relates to investigation and prosecution
of offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, shall stand
transferred, alongwith its employees, assets and liabilities to Lokpal for all purposes.
(4) That part of Delhi Special Police Establishment, which has been transferred under sub-section (3),
shall form part of Investigation Wing of Lokpal.
(5) The Central Government shall cease to have any control over the transferred part and its personnel.
(6) The salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of services of the personnel transferred
under sub-section (3) shall be the same as to which they were entitled to immediately before the
commencement of this Act.
(7) All cases which were being dealt by that part of Delhi Special Police Establishment, which has been
transferred under sub-section (3), shall stand transferred to Lokpal.
(8) After completion of investigation in any case, the investigation wing shall present the case to an
appropriate bench of Lokpal, which shall decide whether to grant permission for prosecution or not.
26. Complaints against officers or employees of Lokpal: (1) Complaints against employees or officers of
Lokpal shall be dealt with separately and as per provisions of this section.
(2) Such complaint could relate to an allegation of an offence punishable under Prevention of Corruption
Act or a misconduct or a dishonest enquiry or investigation.
(3) As soon as such a complaint is received, the same shall be displayed on the website of Lokpal,
alongwith the contents of the complaint.
(4) Investigations into each such complaint shall be completed within a month of its receipt.
(5) In addition to examining the allegations against the said official, the allegations shall especially be
examined against sections 107, 166, 167, 177, 182, 191, 192, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 217, 218,
219, 463, 464, 468, 469, 470, 471, 474 of Indian Penal Code.
(6) If, during the course of investigations, the Lokpal feels that the charges are likely to be sustained, the
Lokpal shall divest such officer of all his responsibilities and powers and shall place him under
suspension.
(7) If after completion of enquiry or investigations, Lokpal decides to prosecute that person under
Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 or holds him guilty of any misconduct or of conducting dishonest
enquiry or investigations, then that person shall not work with Lokpal anymore. Lokpal shall either
dismiss that person from the job, if that person is in the employment of Lokpal, or shall repatriate him, if
he is on deputation.
Provided that no order under this clause shall be passed without giving reasonable opportunity of being
heard to the accused person.
Provided further that order under this clause shall be passed within 15 days of completion of
investigations.
(8) There shall be a separate wing in Lokpal to deal with complaints against officers or staff of Lokpal.
(9) Lokpal shall take all steps to ensure that all enquiries and investigations on complaints against its
own staff and officials are conducted in most transparent and honest manner.
27. Protection- (1) No suit, prosecution, or other legal proceedings shall lie against the Chairperson or
members or against any officer, employee, agency or person referred to in Section 14(4) in respect of
anything which is in good faith done while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official
duties under this Act.
(2) No proceedings of the Lokpal shall be held to be bad for want of form and except on the ground of
jurisdiction, no proceedings or decision of the Lokpal shall be liable to be challenged, reviewed, quashed
or called in question in any court of ordinary Civil Jurisdiction.
Miscellaneous
28. Public Servants to submit property statements-
(1) Every public servant, other than those mentioned in Section 2(11)(a) to (c), shall within three months
after the commencement of this Act and thereafter before the 30th June of every year submit to the
head of that public authority, in the form prescribed by Lokpal, a statement of his assets and liabilities
and those of the members of his family. Public servants mentioned in sections 2(11)(a) to (c) shall
submit their returns in a format prescribed by the Lokpal to the Lokpal with the aforesaid time lines.
(2) The Head of each public authority shall ensure that all such statements are put on the website by 31st
August of that year.
(3) If no such statement is received by the Head of that public authority from any such public servant
within the time specified in sub-section (1), the Head of that public authority shall direct the concerned
public servant to do so immediately. If within next one month, the public servant concerned does not
submit such statement, the Head shall stop the salary and allowances of that public servant till he
submits such statement.
Explanation- In this section “family of a public servant” means the spouse and such children and
parents of the public servant as are dependent on him.
(4) The Lokpal may initiate prosecution against such public servant under Section 176 IPC.
(5) If any public servant furnishes any statement, which is subsequently found to be incorrect, then
Lokpal, in addition to taking action against the said public servant under other sections of this Act, may
also impose a penalty upto a maximum of 50% of the value of the additional property subsequently
detected. Lokpal shall also intimate such information to the Income Tax Department for appropriate
action.
29. Power to delegate and assign functions: (1) Lokpal shall be competent to delegate its powers and
assign functions to the officials working in Lokpal.
(2) All functions carried out and powers exercised by such officials shall be deemed to have been so
done by the Lokpal.
Provided that the following functions shall be performed by the benches and cannot be delegated:
(i) Granting permission to initiate prosecution in any case.
(ii) Order for dismissal of any government servant under CCS Conduct Rules.
(iii) Passing orders under section 10 on complaints against officials and staff of Lokpal.
(iv) Pass orders in cases of complaints, other than grievances, against officers of the level of Joint
Secretary and above.
30. Time limits: (1) Preliminary enquiry under sub-section (1) of section 9 of this Act should be
completed within a month of receipt of complaint.
Provided that the enquiry officer shall be liable for an explanation if the enquiry is not completed within
this time limit.
(2) Investigation into any allegation shall be completed within six months, and in any case, not more
than one year, from the date of receipt of complaint.
(3) Trial in any case filed by Lokpal should be completed within one year. Adjournments should be
granted in rarest circumstances.
31. Penalty for false complaint- (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, if someone makes
any false or frivolous complaint under this Act, Lokpal may impose such fines on that complainant as it
deems fit.
Provided that no fine can be imposed without giving a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
(2) Such fines shall be recoverable as dues under Land Revenue Act.
(3) A complaint or allegation once made under this Act shall not be allowed to be withdrawn.
31A. Preventive measures: (1) Lokpal shall, at regular intervals, either study itself or cause to be studied
the functioning of all public authorities falling within its jurisdiction and in consultation with respective
public authority, issue such directions as it deems fit to prevent incidence of corruption in future.
(2) Lokpal shall also be responsible for creating awareness about this Act and involving general public in
curbing corruption and maladministration.
32. Power to make Rules – (1) The Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules
for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.
Provided that such rules shall be made only in consultation and with the approval of Lokpal.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, such rules may
provide for .-
(i) the allowance and pensions payable to and other conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of Lokpal;
(ii) the powers of a Civil Court which may be exercised by the Lokpal under clause (h) of sub-section
(2) of section 11;
(iii) the salary, allowances, recruitment and other conditions of service of the staff and employees of
the Lokpal;
(iv) any other matter for which rules have to be made are necessary under this Act.
(3) Any rule made under this Act may be made with retrospective effect and when such a rule is
made the reasons for making the rule shall be specified in a Statement laid before both Houses of the
Parliament.
33. Removal of difficulties- Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the President, in
consultation with Lokpal or on request of Lokpal may, by order, make such provision –
(i) for bringing the provisions of this Act into effective operation;
(ii) for continuing the enquiries and investigations pending before the Central Vigilance Commission by
the Lokpal.
34. Power to make regulations: Lokpal shall have power to make its own regulations for the smooth
functioning of the institution and to effectively implement various provisions of this Act.
35. This Act shall override the provisions of all other laws.

Career Selection for Young People

Career choice is one of the most important decisions in anyone’s life, and yet countless young people enter careers which later prove to be wholly unsuitable.

Even today most young people have no way to find out if a particular career would really suit them. Decisions that are central to future happiness and success are therefore very often being taken in the dark.

Career Callings transforms the knowledge available to every young person, to enable the right choices to be made. Participants are guided through a series of enjoyable and imaginative exercises to identify the career path that will suit their abilities and interests. Steps include a series of tests to identify abilities, aptitudes, strengths, values and interests which are essential elements in making a successful career selection:

* Visualising an ideal work day
* Identifying personal values that will form the foundation of a successful career
* Identifying individual talents, strengths and accomplishments
* Defining worthwhile and appropriate ambitions
* Assessing levels of interest and ability for different career options
* Clarifying a path for the next 10 years
* Devising a plan of action

The results are brought together in a number of steps to identify career options that will be genuinely satisfying, inspiring and rewarding.

Young people who do not know what career to choose will find out what options they are likely to find satisfying, and how to move forward. Others who have already made a career or study choice will gain added confidence that they are on the right track.

The programme complements the computerised assessments that are available in some schools, going into much greater depth, helping to explore options that may not have been considered before and providing confidence that a career choice will be truly fulfilling.

Career Callings is available for young people as a short course or personal coaching from £350. The course is also available for delivery in schools, where reduced prices are available for large groups.

Career coaching is also available on a one-to-one basis by telephone, where specific questions are to be addressed or where attendance at a course location is impracticable.

Click here for comments by others who have attended Career Callings.

To discuss questions and course dates call 00 33 (0)4 94 43 45 05 and propose a time and telephone number when one of our specialists can call you or email enquiries@foundationsforliving.com
Career Callings was created by Pamela Grant of Houston, Texas. She has a Master of Science degree in Occupational Education and has been advising companies, coaching private clients and facilitating career transitions for over 15 years. Her mission is to encourage and support others in identifying and moving into their ideal careers. In 2001 her programme was brought to Europe, where Alison Davis is certified as the Senior Consultant and Practitioner.

GUIDELINES FOR PUNJAB STATE TEACHER ELIGIBILITY TEST (PSTET)

GUIDELINES FOR PUNJAB STATE TEACHER ELIGIBILITY TEST
(PSTET)

BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
The implementation of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 requires the
recruitment of a large number of teachers across the country in a time bound manner. In spite of the enormity
of the task, it is desirable to ensure that quality requirement for recruitment of teachers is not diluted at any
cost. It is therefore necessary to ensure that persons recruited as teachers possess the essential aptitude and
ability to meet the challenges of teaching at the primary and upper primary level.
In accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of Section 23 of the Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) had vide
Notification dated 23rd August, 2010 laid down the minimum qualifications for a person to be eligible for
appointment as a teacher in classes I to VIII.
The one of the essential qualifications for a person to be eligible for appointment as a teacher in any of the
schools referred to in clause (n) of section 2 of the RTE Act is that he/ she should pass the Teacher Eligibility
Test (TET) which will be conducted by the appropriate Government in accordance with the Guidelines framed
by the NCTE.
The rationale for including the TET as a minimum qualification for a person to be eligible for appointment as a
teacher is as under:
i) It would bring national standards and benchmark of teacher quality in the recruitment process
ii) It would induce teacher education institutions and students from these institutions to further improve their
performance standards
iii) It would send a positive signal to all stakeholders that the Government lays special emphasis on teacher
quality
The Department of School Education, Government of Punjab has entrusted the responsibility of
conducting the Punjab State Teacher Eligibility Test (PSTET) -2011 to the SCERT, Punjab which shall
be held on 12-06-2011.

ELIGIBILITY
The following persons are eligible for appearing in the PSTET:-
Minimum Qualifications for Classes I-V:
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final 2–year Diploma in
Elementary Education (or its equivalent)
OR
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 45% marks and passed or appearing in final 2–year Diploma in
Elementary Education (or its equivalent), in accordance with the NCTE (Recognition Norms and Procedure),
Regulations 2002
OR
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final 4–year Bachelor of
Elementary Education (B.El.Ed.)
OR
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final 2–year Diploma in
Education (Special Education)*
Note:
i) Relaxation of 5% in minimum qualifying marks at BA/B.Sc./Senior Secondary level is admissible for SC/ST
Candidates.
ii) For this year only, a candidate with BA/B.Sc. with at least 50% marks and B.Ed qualification shall also be
eligible for test for classes I to V, provided he/she undergoes, after appointment, an NCTE recognized 6–
month special program in Elementary Education.
Minimum Qualifications for Classes VI-VIII:
B.A. /B.Sc and passed or appearing in final 2–year Diploma in Elementary Education* (or its equivalent)
OR
B.A. /B.Sc. with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in 1–year Bachelor in Education (B.Ed)*
OR
B.A. /B.Sc. with at least 45% marks & passed or appearing in 1–year Bachelor in Education (B.Ed)*, in accordance
with the NCTE (Recognition Norms & Procedure) Regulations issued from time to time in this regard.
OR
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final 4–year Bachelor in
Elementary Education (B.El.Ed.)*
OR
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final 4–year BA/B.Sc. Ed or
B.A. (Ed.)/B.Sc. (Ed.)*
OR
B.A. /B.Sc. with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in 1–year B.Ed. (Special Education)*
* A diploma/degree course in teacher education recognized by the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
only shall be considered. However, in case of Diploma in Education (Special Education) and B.Ed. (Special
Education), a course recognized by the Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) only shall be considered.
Note:
i) Relaxation of 5% in minimum qualifying marks at BA/B.Sc./Senior secondary level is admissible for SC/ST
Candidates.
STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OF PSTET
All questions in PSTET test will be Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), each carrying one mark, with four alternatives out
of which one answer will be correct. There will be no negative marking.
There will be two papers of PSTET.
(i) Paper I will be for a person who intents to be a teacher for classes I to V.
(ii) Paper II will be for a person who intents to be a teacher for classes VI to VIII.
Note: A person who intents to be a teacher for both levels (classes I to V and classes VI to VIII) will have to appear in
both the papers (Paper I and Paper II).
Paper I (for classes I to V); No. of MCQs – 150
Duration of examination: One-and-a-half hours
Structure and Content (All Compulsory)
(i) Child Development and Pedagogy 30 MCQs 30 Marks
(ii) Language I 30 MCQs 30 Marks
(iii) Language II 30 MCQs 30 Marks
(iv) Mathematics 30 MCQs 30 Marks
(v) Environmental Studies 30 MCQs 30 Marks
Total 150 MCQ 150 Marks
Nature and standard of questions:
• The test items on Child Development and Pedagogy will focus on educational psychology of teaching and
learning relevant to the age group of 6-11 years. They will focus on understanding the characteristics and
needs of diverse learners, interaction with learners and the attributes and qualities of a good facilitator of
learning.
• The Test items for Language-I will focus on the proficiencies related to the medium of instruction, (as chosen
from list of prescribed language options in the application form).
• The Language-II will be from among the prescribed options other than Language-I. A candidate may choose
any one language from the available language options and will be required to specify the same in the
application form. The test items in language II will also focus on the elements of language, communication and
comprehension abilities.
• The test items in Mathematics and Environmental Studies will focus on the concepts, problem solving abilities
and pedagogical understanding of the subjects. In all these subject areas, the test items will be evenly
distributed over different divisions of the syllabus of that subject prescribed for classes: I–V, by the Punjab
State Government/SCERT.
• The questions in the tests for Paper I will be based on the topics prescribed for classes: I–V, but their difficulty
standard, as well as linkages, could be up to the secondary stage.
Paper II (for classes VI to VIII): No. of MCQs – 150
Duration of examination: One-and-a-half hours
Structure and Content:
(i) Child Development & Pedagogy (compulsory) 30 MCQs 30Marks
(ii) Language-I (compulsory) 30 MCQs 30Marks
(iii) Language-II (compulsory) 30 MCQs 30Marks
(iv) (a) For Mathematics and Science teacher: Mathematics and Science 60 MCQs 60Marks
(b) For Social Studies/Social Science Teacher: Social Science 60 MCQs 60Marks
(c) For any other teacher – either (a) or (b)
• The test items on Child Development and Pedagogy will focus on educational psychology of teaching and
learning, relevant to the age group 11-14 years. They will focus on understanding the characteristics, needs and
psychology of diverse learners, interaction with learners and the attributes and qualities of a good facilitator of
learning.
• The test items for Language-I will focus on the proficiency related to the medium of instruction, as chosen from
list of prescribed options in the application form.
• The Language-II will be a language other than Language-I. A candidate may choose any one language from
among the available options and as in the specified list in the application form and attempt questions in the one
indicated by the candidate in the application form by him. The Test items in Language-II will also focus on the
elements of language, communication and comprehension abilities.
• The test items in Mathematics and Science, and Social Studies will focus on the concepts, problem solving
abilities and pedagogical understanding of these subjects. The test items of Mathematics and Science will be of
30 marks each. The test items will be evenly distributed over different divisions of the syllabus of that subject as
prescribed for classes VI-VIII by the Punjab State Government/SCERT.
• The questions in the tests for Paper II will be based on the topics of the prescribed syllabus of the Punjab State
for classes VI-VIII but their difficulty standard as well as linkages could be up to the senior secondary stage.
QUALIFYING MARKS
A person who scores 60% or more in the PSTET exam will be considered as PSTET pass. School Management
(Government, Local bodies, Government aided and unaided)
(a) May consider giving concessions to persons belonging to SC/ST, OBC, differently abled persons, etc., in
accordance with their extant reservation policy;
(b) Should give weightage to the PSTET scores in the recruitment process; however, qualifying the PSTET would
not confer a right on any person for recruitment/employment as it is only one of the eligibility criteria for
appointment.
APPLICABILITY
The PSTET shall apply to the Schools owned and managed by the Punjab State Government/Local Bodies and aided
school.
PSTET may also apply to the unaided private schools who may exercise the option of considering the PSTET
Important Dates
SN. Activity Date of the Activity
1 Publish of Advertisement 26- April-2011
2 Online registration process Start 27- April-2011
3 Last date of Receipt of application (online) 13- May-2011
4 Last date of Receipt of Fee 18- May-2011
5 Fee reconciliation and uploaded the status for
information to candidates
01- June-2011
6 Uploading of Admit Card (online) 03- June-2011
7 Conduct of written Examination 12- June-2011
8 Declaration of Results 20- June-2011
SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION
Date of
Examination
Paper Timing Duration
12-06-2011
(Sunday)
Paper – I 10:00 to 11:30 hrs 1.30 hrs
12-06-2011
(Sunday)
Paper – II 13:30 to 15:00 hrs 1.30 hrs
Fee
(i) For General/OBC Candidates – Rs. 500/-per paper.
(ii) For SC/ST candidates – Rs. 300/-per paper.
(iii) For Ex-Servicemen Self-only – Nil.
Note: The candidate who intend to appear for both Papers I & II, the fee shall be Rs. 1000/- for General/OBC
and Rs. 600/- for SC/ST candidates
How to apply online
1. Before applying online non-refundable Bank Demand Draft for Rs 500/- per paper and Rs 300/- for SC
Candidates per paper (The candidate who intend to appear for both Papers I & II, the fee shall be
Rs. 1000/- for General/OBC and Rs. 600/- for SC/ST candidates) in favour of “Director, C-DAC,
Mohali payable at Mohali/ Chandigarh should be ready as the application fee details are needs to
be entered in the form.
2. Fill the online application form available on the website http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in by
clicking at the link PSTET Online Registration.
3. The application can be filled online only till 13-05-2011 up to 5.00 PM.
4. If by mistake the candidate has filed in wrong data, he/she can correct the data from 27-4-2011 to
13-05-2011 up to 5:00 PM. by entering his/her registration number and password. Henceforth no
editing will be done and thereafter data will be locked and no change will be acceptable/ allowed.
5. The Registration slip will be generated after filing the online form. Get the printout (2 copies) of the
registration slip.
6. Only online forms will be entertained. The registration number generated in the form should be
written at the back of the demand draft along with the name of the candidate, father name and
postal address.
7. Send/ post one copy of the on line registration slip (Printed) with a self attested photograph along
with the original demand draft of requisite fee (Non refundable) to “Director, C-DAC, A-34,Phase
8, industrial area Mohali which should reach positively by 18-5-2011 (Please do not send any
other document). The application fee in the shape of demand draft received after the last date i.e.
18-5-2011 will not be considered.
8. The list of candidates whose fee is confirmed will be available on
http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in for candidate reference from 01-06-2011.
9. The candidate can download their ADMIT CARDS by visiting the website
http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in again by entering his/her registration number and password
(Candidates are advised not to disclose the password to any one for data security) from
03-06-2011. Incase candidate unable to get the admit card, he/ she must contact C-DAC Mohali
personally or on helpline numbers one day before the said examination upto 5.00 PM, failing which
department will not be held responsible.
10. For any clarifications regarding the online filling of the form, the candidate can call at CDAC Mohali
help-line numbers 0172-6619054-55 on all working days from 9:00 am to 5.30 pm.
11. Candidate are advised to visit the website http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in regularly for more updates
and important information.
12 Candidate must bring a admit card/ Registration slip on the day of written examination at the venue
of the examination centre. The candidates without admit card/ Registration slip will not be allowed to
appear in the written examination.
13 Candidate will be responsible for any mistakes made by him/ her in the on line application form,
Education Department shall not be responsible or liable in any way.
14 The result list will be prepared on the basis of the written test and will be available on website
http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in
Instructions:
1. The candidate has to apply only online http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in. No other mode of applying
will be entertained.
2. The written examination will be conducted out of those candidates only who will fulfill the prescribed
academic and technical qualification and will submit the bank demand draft of prescribed fee.
3. The proposed date for the written examination for the said PSTET is 12-06-2011. The venue of Exam
Centre will be available on the website on 03-06-2011.
4. The candidates should reach the examination centre one hour before the start of the examination. At
the examination centre, the candidate has to produce his/her admit card pasted with passport size
photograph and duly attested by self along with identity proof, which may be either any of from the
Driving license, Voter ID Card, Passport, PAN Card.
5. The candidates must satisfy themselves that they fulfil all the eligibility conditions for this test.
Merely appearing in the examination and qualifying the test does not entitle the candidate for issue of
the certificate. The issue of certificate will be subject to their Verification of original documents. The
purpose would be to verify different records regarding identification, age, qualifying examination,
state of eligibility, category etc, of the candidate. On failing to establish of any of the documents the
candidate will not be considered for issue of certificate and liable for criminal action.
6. The Question Paper will be of objective type (150 marks) having 150 questions with multiple choices
on OMR sheet with one correct answer of each question of appropriate standards. The duration of the
paper will be of 90 minutes. There will be NO NEGATIVE MARKING. Each right answer will carry one
mark.
7. No candidate will be allowed to appear in the examination without Roll Number Slip and identity proof
in original.
8. Candidates should bring with them BLUE or BLACK Ball Pens only. Books, written notes, calculator,
mobile phones and other electronic devices etc. will not be permitted to be carried in the examination
hall.
9. Candidates are advised to visit the web-site http://recruitment.cdacmohali.in regularly.
10. The Proposed date of declaration of written examination result is 20-06-2011.
Director,
SCERT, Punjab
Chandigarh

For more information click here

Computers in Education

Each year, new technologies hold the promise to alter the way we think and learn. Computers are prevalent everywhere, and they are making their way into school systems around the country. It is obvious that there is a demand for technological instruction in high school and college. However, the question of if computers should be implemented into early childhood classrooms is still prudent. With computers all around us, it is inevitable that children will be exposed to them, and they will eventually be facilitated into their daily lives. The purpose of this research paper is to explore the advantages, disadvantages, and methods of integrating computers into the early childhood classroom. Early childhood experiences should maximize young children’s overall growth and development. Their eyes should be opened to the wonderment of learning and the pleasures of discovery. Computers can by an important tool to optimize young children’s potential, and help aid the learning process. Before deciding to introduce children to computers, it is important to address the potential benefits and dangers the machines have on youths. (Peek and Newby 164) Some people believe that computers should not have a place in early childhood cla

21st Century Trends for Higher Education

Introduction
In 2007, the Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG) released the first in a series of Points of View regarding key trends for higher education in the 21st century, along with the role of technology in each. The first paper1 described IBSG’s position on 11 trends affecting higher education in 2007–2008, including incoming students, faculty support, job alliances, and data management.
This paper, the second in the series, addresses 12 key trends—some new, some ongoing—for 2008 and 2009:
1. Evergreen students
2. Globalization
3. Technical and information literacy
4. Enrollment, retention, and branding
5. Mobility
6. Safety and security
7. Pedagogical centers and innovative campus commons
8. Evolution of teaching and learning
9. Collaboration
10. Strategic plans and technology
11. Edutainment
12. Green
Each trend builds on ideas presented in previous papers,2 illustrating how current trends are constantly evolving and new ones are emerging. By understanding these
trends and technologies, higher-education institutions will be able to prepare
students to become the next generation of productive employees and innovative leaders the world needs.
21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008–2009
Point of View
Trend 1: Evergreen Students
Adults ages 18–26 are typically the first to adopt new technologies. Many of these early adopters are new, or “evergreen,” students who bring these technologies onto college campuses. Because of this, students expect their schools to have the infrastructure to support the latest technologies.
Some of the biggest trends in 2008 include the emergence of Web 2.0 and social net-
working phenomena such as blogs and wikis, as well as new online video repository and delivery websites such as YouTube, iTunes U, and Big Think. The influx of smartphones, such as the iPhone, and other intelligent devices has also enhanced mobile learning (commonly referred to as m-learning), creating new channels for content delivery, video expansion online, and podcasting. Finally, the adoption of virtual reality websites such as Second Life has provided higher-education institutions with new venues for class gatherings and learning.
Universities continue to examine ways in which they can integrate these tools to further enhance the campus and learning experience and improve productivity through flexible learning environments.3 Many universities view technology as a key asset that helps them create an intellectually vibrant and relevant campus to attract the best students and faculty.4
Trend 2: Globalization
The demand for higher education globally has increased and will continue to grow. There are more than 100 million college students worldwide, new campuses are being built, and existing campuses are expanding. Universities are competing internationally for resources, faculty, the best students, and education funding.
Overseas expansion creates opportunities for students and faculty in terms of exchange programs and expanded campus environments. China, India, and the Middle East have quickly become key areas for widespread campus growth. The learning model varies by country and institution, ranging from replicating the home campus, to building local capacity, to participating in faculty exchanges.
These global learning environments give students an opportunity to expand their portfolios to include experience that is valued in today’s workforce. Universities in turn use their foreign campuses to attract top research talent and build international relationships, establishing a global presence and helping develop local capacity.
Trend 3: Technical and Information Literacy
Increasingly, college campuses are taking steps to enhance technical literacy and create a campus culture that encourages faculty to use computers, smart devices, and other innovative tools in their curricula.5
Information literacy is another topical area. While many students may be device-savvy, they may not necessarily be information-savvy. Students today, having for the most part grown up with technology, possess more technical abilities with computers and software, yet many have not learned how to use technology for academic purposes. Universities are addressing this through a variety of methods, such as library programs that include workshops and instructional services.6
At the same time, universities are creating a technology culture through a variety of venues—common areas, support desks, and student employment programs.
Technical and information literacy continues to gain importance on campuses, ensuring that students are viable candidates in the global workplace. Universities are exploring methods for providing students with the capabilities required to use information technology (IT) both critically and wisely.
Two other trends occurring at the same time are a wave of faculty retirements (24.5 percent of tenured professors above age 60 retired as of 2004) and an influx of postsecondary teachers (an increase of 23 percent is expected between 2006 and 20167). While many of these retirees tend to be less technical and more resistant to using technology than students, universities expect that incoming teachers and other staff will be technically proficient and open to innovation, thereby enabling universities to enhance their technical and information literacy programs.
Trend 4: Branding, Enrollment, and Retention
Schools realize that the Internet is a viable way to market academic programs to prospective students while enhancing the school’s brand. One example is Zinch.com, a website targeted at high school students applying for college. Universities are also establishing online parties and networking websites for newly admitted freshmen, allowing them to interact virtually with campus services and the campus community before they start school.The presence of schools in virtual online communities such as Second Life helps enhance the brand. YouTube’s education channels and iTunes U are effective not only for teaching and learning, but also for marketing a university’s other, less-academic strengths. Videos8 of sports rallies, seminars, concerts, and other events are posted to these sites, effectively giving prospective students a glimpse of the university’s offerings.
Colleges are also using technology to help build an attractive brand—one that assures prospective students and parents that upon graduation, students will be prepared to participate in a technologically advanced, global economy.
To attract prospective students, some universities have developed student blogger programs, where an assigned roster of current students blogs about their daily routines.9 Some universities also have respective “fan pages” on Facebook to enable communications with incoming freshmen.
Voice-over-IP call centers and text messaging are two methods being used not only to attract students, but also to retain them. For example, one university advertises on Google and routes leads to its central call center as prospective students click on the advertisement. Another university uses call centers as a way to leave voicemails for students who have missed a number of classes and to assist those who may have health, work overload, or personal issues. This “personal approach” is effective in keeping students from dropping out of school. Text messages are also being used in the same manner.10
Trend 5: Mobility
College students today depend heavily on their mobile phones and PDAs. One-third of the 97 percent of college students who own a cell phone no longer use land lines to make voice calls.11 The freedom, convenience, and cost savings that mobile phones provide are invaluable to students, whether they are living away from home or commuting daily to and from school, home, and work.12
With the proliferation of mobile phones on campus, colleges everywhere are compelled to capitalize on feature-rich phones that are capable of much more than just voice calls. Adoption of the BlackBerry, iPhone, and other smart devices that have Internet access allows students and faculty to perform a wide range of tasks virtually anywhere they have cell phone service. These tasks range from administrative (registration), to academic (downloading class materials), to social (instant messaging), to functional (checking transportation schedules).
Mobile phones are also being used to access computer files from a remote location. With services like Soonr (www.soonr.com), students who have forgotten to bring an assignment to class can prove to their professor that they have finished the assignment by using their cell phone to access the completed work on their dorm-room computer.
Mobile applications such as Twitter and CitySense help students schedule meetings or study dates remotely. For example, students can facilitate text blogging, helping mobile classmates map each other’s location quickly.
Mobile learning is also on the rise on college campuses that are exploring using PDAs and smartphones to deliver courseware, field data, short tutorials, and classroom polls.13
Trend 6: Safety and Security
The physical safety of college campuses has always been a top priority for schools, but the prevalence in recent years of being “always on” has compelled educational institutions to make security a top IT issue every year since 2003. Top of mind are improving physical safety, protecting student records and key campus data, providing asset tracking, increasing disaster recovery, and adding more security services to the network.
In the aftermath of the Virginia Tech shootings in April 2007, 66 percent of schools have revised their emergency plans, and 41 percent have increased funding for campus safety, according to a Campus Safety report, “Virginia Tech 1 Year Later: How Campuses Have Responded,” published in March 2008. According to the report, since April 2007, the percentages of institutions that have purchased or will purchase the following equipment or systems within the next six months are:
• 73 percent, mass notification
• 55 percent, security camera systems
• 44 percent, access control and management systems
• 40 percent, emergency communications and two-way radios
• 28 percent, patrol vehicles
• 27 percent, weapons
The United States House of Representatives passed a bill in February 2008 that would require colleges and universities to issue public warnings within 30 minutes of an emergency or threat, as well as notify the public of campus safety information. In April 2008, the bill was revised to require public warnings within 30 minutes of confirmation of an emergency or threat.14 Universities must have the equipment to be able to issue these warnings quickly and directly to the campus population and surrounding community.
Securing computer networks and campus data is another priority among educational institutions. Since the beginning of 2008, at least 30 U.S. universities and colleges have experienced data breaches either from computer theft or from inadvertent exposure of personal information on the Internet. In today’s environment where identity theft is becoming more common, campuses must be equipped with various ways to protect the wealth of sensitive, personal information within their networks.
Trend 7: Pedagogical Centers and Innovative “Campus Commons”
In addition to new and renovated buildings, several higher-education institutions have created areas called “campus commons.” These areas redefine how traditional buildings, rooms, and spaces are designed, built, and used. High-traffic areas such as the campus library or computer lab typically are the starting point for developing campus commons. For example, many universities are transforming their libraries into campus commons by building food courts, creating social gathering and computer gaming areas, and adding collaborative seating arrangements.15
Libraries have been at the forefront of this conversion as books are increasingly digitized and space is reevaluated.16 Campus commons are evolving to become key locations where technologies can be showcased and explored. Some institutions are reinventing these spaces as pedagogical or innovation centers where faculty can learn how to integrate technology into the curriculum, or where students can go to watch and make video projects.17
As institutions increase their use of technologies, applications, and smart services, additional areas such as language labs will transition from the influx of technology.
Trend 8: Evolution of Teaching and Learning
The education process continues to evolve from one-to-one (teacher to student) to collaborative learning. Web 2.0 and social networking tools such as blogs and wikis, and online social gathering websites such as Flickr, are enhancing and facilitating collaborative learning and are being used widely on many campuses. The delivery of content has evolved dramatically, as many professors opt to post all class material, including complete audio and/or video recordings of lectures, on sites like iTunes U and YouTube. Because students spend much of their time online, university professors see the value of posting academic materials on these popular sites where students can download and interact with the course materials in a location where they also seek entertainment. Open source course-management systems such as Moodle and similar systems on Facebook are just some applications being reconfigured to support more content and student collaboration.1
Open-content initiatives—such as OpenCourseWare19 from MIT, and the Research Impact Initiative20 and open content website,21 both from UC Berkeley—continue to grow, along with book digitization programs first initiated by Google. In addition to universities, libraries, museums, and various government offices are also beginning to make their content available over the Internet. For example, the U.S. Library of Congress22 and the New Bibliotheca Alexandrina23 in Egypt are sharing collections and linking to other global libraries to create an expansive environment of knowledge. Museums that have digitized significant parts of their collections and have virtual galleries on their websites include the Louvre Museum in Paris,24 Tate galleries in the United Kingdom, Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam,26 and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.27 The U.S. government also provides access to a variety of statistics and databases over the Internet.28
Trend 9: Collaboration
Collaboration is a distinguishing attribute of higher education. Universities are seeking ways to facilitate collaboration to enhance research, classes, foreign exchanges, alumni relationships, and private sector partnerships. A variety of venues have emerged to make collaboration easier and more accessible.29
Virtual meeting-place and application-sharing tools such as Cisco® WebEx® are efficient web-based collaboration solutions that help improve productivity and decrease communication and travel. WebEx simulates the visual communications that occur between students and teachers in the traditional classroom setting. For example, professors use the WebEx “attention indicator” feature to monitor whether students are giving the class their full attention. Professors can also require students participating in the WebEx session to turn on “desktop sharing” to ensure that the students are actively engaged in the class.
Ultra-high-definition systems such as Cisco TelePresence take productivity, collaboration, and costs savings further. TelePresence enables participants to conduct virtual meetings from nearly any location worldwide, creating a sense of “being there in-person.” To date, TelePresence has saved Cisco approximately US$120 million in travel costs. TelePresence can be used in higher education to facilitate administration and cabinet meetings, dissertations, interviews and recruiting, student-professor meetings, overseas campus connections, and distance learning.
Virtual locations in Second Life are creating alternative collaboration spaces, and emerging technologies are paving the way to integrate, or blend, virtual and physical realities.30 These venues, and others, will continue to facilitate collaboration.
Trend 10: Strategic Plans and Technology
Budget and efficiency are ongoing concerns in higher education. In response, institutions are starting to adopt certain practices from private enterprises, such as strategic planning that integrates technology as a key component.
“Cloud computing”—a process that allows files and data to be stored on a remote network using the Internet—is another approach that may potentially lower IT costs and is also a current topic of interest among universities.
In addition, universities are developing long-term financial strategies to ensure that technology is incorporated into the budget. Leasing IT equipment is becoming a more common way to manage IT costs and budgets. Leasing has become more popular and is being used effectively by a number of higher-education institutions31, 32 to ensure that the allocation of funds for new technology and upgrades is consistent. Evaluating core technology efficiencies through ROI analysis is becoming a key factor in planning as well—particularly in the areas of security, storage, unified communications, and ERP systems.
Trend 11: Edutainment
Higher-education content and entertainment (edutainment) are becoming more intertwined. The first indications of this took place on iTunes and YouTube, sites commonly used for entertainment content only. Professors are now combining the two, using various videos that contain both educational and entertainment value in podcasts and posting course content on education channels to create a more engaging learning environment. Computer gaming is emerging in teaching and learning33 as well, and more than 120 schools have a presence in Second Life, using these virtual spaces for socializing, teaching, learning, and branding.
Television broadcasting companies such as the BBC, MTV, NBC, and ABC are quickly developing methods to integrate broadcast media with higher education. This trend supports the marked increase in the use of multimedia devices on college campuses where content is accessible not only through computers, but also through TVs and smartphones. Campuses are evaluating the benefit of broadcasting campus TV programs over IP networks.Trend 12: Green
Green has become a key topic in many industry sectors globally, including higher education. Universities are continually seeking and identifying ways to conserve energy efficiently, provide energy using alternative methods and resources, and recycle discarded technology hardware components known as “e-waste.” Green dorms,34 green institutes,35 and green blueprints36 are just a few examples of green programs on college campuses. Common conservation practices include implementing cloud computing through server virtualization; providing resource sharing; collocating equipment to reduce energy consumption, costs, power, and space; buying energy-efficient equipment; donating IT equipment; deploying recycling programs; and supporting teleworking.37
Communication is critical to ensuring that conservation initiatives on campuses are effective. Universities are being proactive in educating students, faculty, and staff about their solutions. Many professors, of their own accord, are opting to use email, instant messaging, or short message service instead of paper to issue assignments and provide feedback.
The annual “College Sustainability Report Card” by the Sustainable Endowments Institute38 showed that in 2007:
• 45 percent of colleges made strides in fighting global warming by cutting carbon emissions
• 59 percent have high-performance green-building standards for new buildings
• 42 percent use hybrid or electric vehicles
• 37 percent purchase renewable energy, and 30 percent produce some of their own energy using wind or solar generators
• 70 percent buy food from local farms, and 64 percent serve fair trade coffee
Conclusion
In the 21st century, technology will play an increasing role in higher education. Institutions will adopt innovative solutions that will change the way students learn, communicate, produce, collaborate, and study both on and off campus—solutions that will also improve interactions among faculty, staff, and students. Creating innovative services from current and future technologies requires a powerful, reliable, expandable, and secure IT infrastructure that has adequate bandwidth, quality of service, and storage. Many colleges and universities have already developed short- and long-term plans to ensure success in meeting their current and future needs.

Library Automation in Academic Libraries in India

INTRODUCTION
The history of library automation is sufficiently old now. It started in early fifties in the Untied States of America. The landmark was
the initiation of MARC project by the Library of Congress. During 1960s some experiments were carried out in India in this field but
very sparingly. During late seventies there were some achievements like production of National Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials
by INSDOC, production of Union Catalogue of DRDO libraries of Western Region by the Institute of Armament Technology at
Pune. Then came eighties and the whole focus of the librarians shifted1.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR AUTOMATION IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES
There are several reasons which can be cited for this difference. Some of them are :
1.1 Attitude and awareness of the management.
1.2 Attitude and awareness of the Users specially faculty.
1.3 Resources available
1.4 Non-availability of suitable software:
1.5 Level and skill of staff
1.6 Geographical locations
1.1 Attitude and Initiative of the Management:
Attitude and initiative on the part of the management has played major role in library automation in Indian University Libraries. The
management here includes both the university management and the librarian as a secretary of the management whose task is to carry
out the decisions taken by the executive bodies of the university, such as Syndicate, Executive Council etc. If the Librarian had the
initiative then he was able to convince the authorities about this emergent need. In some of the cases, the initiative also came from
top and the Librarian was forced (or bypassed) to do it. But the best blend was when the initiative of both the Librarian and University
Authorities was synergized. If there was no initiative on both the ends than there was no progress.
1.2 Attitude and Initiative of the Uses
A library may be as smart as its readers. If the readers are smart and well aware they may force the authorities to work towards library
automation. If the readers are knowledgeable about the development being taking place in the information technology, they have
influenced the use of computers in library to a great extent. This is more true about faculty as they are the people who participate in
decision making process. The good examples are the libraries of IITs and other higher engineering educational institutions.
1.3 Resources available
The third important factor is the resources available with the university libraries. The resources include both financial as well as
human resources. In most of the universities, the librarians are given funds only for books and journals. Some libraries do not want to
or are not allowed the funds received for books and journals to be used for any other purpose, even though the University Grants
Commission (UGC) guidelines permit the use of a certain percentage towards such activities (In VIII Plan it was 15% and in IX plan
10%). Most of the libraries depend on the funds provided by the UGC under Inflibnet project. The distribution of the money under
this project was not done logically. Big and small libraries were equated at par and as a result while some libraries remained fund
starved some were not able to use the funds. Before distributing funds to libraries there should have been a survey of the requirement
and certain guidelines laid down. Besides this there are no other financial resources available with the university libraries. In order to
save the university libraries from going further down UGC must do something in this direction.
Another very serious problem, may be more serious than the financial one, is the lack of trained manpower. Many of our library
science schools have not based their curricula on the automation requirement of the university libraries. Some of them are eventeaching today what was designed thirty or forty years back although that has become totally outdated. Not many library schools
produce a candidate who can straight away go the Automation Department of a University Library and can independently work
without any further training. The bifurcation of the library science schools from libraries are perhaps the one of the main important
reasons for that. As a result our profession became the only profession where practice went far ahead of the teaching. In the country
people are talking about digital libraries and web-OPACs and we are teaching fundamental of computers in our library schools. This is
the only profession where getting a professional degree does not require any professional training. Can you imagine a doctor without
hospital training or an engineer without a training in Industry.
1.4 Non-availability of suitable software
Non-availability of suitable software has also played an important role. Though there are a number of software available for library
management but most of them are non standard. The main reason behind is that most of the software have been developed without the
help of a qualified librarian. As a result there were a stream of non-standard software. Some of these soft wares have been developed
by big corporations like CMC but have not been proved very successful. The software developed by institutions (for example
DESIDOC, INSDOC etc.) could not be successful as they were lacking in marketing and after sales service. The librarian is confused
as he is not in a position to decide what to select.
1.5 Level of skill of library staff
The level of skill of library staff also played a very important role. In our country there are no standard for level of subordinate staff to
be recruited in academic libraries. There educational and professional qualification vary from state to state. In some of the cases the
library assistants are recruited with 12th pass and a six months certificate in library science while in Central institutions like IITs and
Central Universities it is minimum graduation and degree in library science. The institutions having better stuff went far ahead
(though there are exceptions to that). The better qualified staff was better oriented towards progressive thinking which could move the
things fast. This point emphasizes the requirement of a uniform qualification policy for the recruitment of staff in academic
institutions.
1.6 Geographical Location
Geographical location of an institution also played a very important role. The institutions near to a metro city were benefited by the
availability of the resources. They were having better approach to hardware and software market and also the manpower for data
entry. They were having approach to better training facilities. Hyderabad is a good example which can be cited.
2. PRESENT STATUS OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
The real boost in library automation came from the establishment of the INFLIBNET Centre. Before Inflibnet scattered efforts were
being made in academic libraries specially in the institutions of special characters like IITs, IIMs etc. INFLIBNET proved a real
catalyst. Inflibnet started with scratch. At that time there were no financial assistance available to the University Libraries for
automation. For the first time it was established that automation was the need of hour. The finances were allocated for the first time.
The standards were established about the data capturing. The format was finalized and the Karvan started. As one estimate at present
about 120 university libraries have been using computers in their activities. Some of the University libraries are even establishing
digital libraries not only of already available digital resources but are digitizing their own literature. About 50 university libraries have
their web pages.
3. AREAS WHERE COMPUTERS ARE BEING USED
The following are the areas where computer are being used at present.
3.1 Online public access catalogue
3.2 Circulation
3.3 Acquisition
3.4 Serial control
3.5 Intranet
3.6 Internet
3.7 CD-ROM services
3.1 Online Public Access Catalogue(OPACs)
The problem being faced by the users in locating the document was the first to be targeted in the library automation. As a result the
work first started in this direction. There was one more reason for this and that was the availability of CDS/ ISIS software which had
the facility of catalogue only. It was in contrast of the special libraries where the work first started on providing information services
like CD-ROM search. Even today this area of automation has more activity than any other area. It has now graduated to Web-OPAC
(web based online public access catalogues) where university libraries have made their databases available on their websites. This has
eliminated the need of installation of search software on the user’s terminal. One potential which remains unutilized is the use of
search data for research purpose as the search history can provide very useful tools for the librarians to formulate their collection
development plans.
3.2 Circulation
Circulation is one of the main activities of a university library or any library per say. In university libraries, however, the number of
books issued and retuned are more than in special libraries. Therefore, the next area which was taken up was the circulation. In some
of the libraries the number of books issued/returned may be more than one thousand per day. We at IIT Roorkee (formerly University
of Roorkee) has experience of issuing 1500 books in six working hours. Sometimes there used to be a queue of more than 100
students, since the free hours for all students used to be the same, before automated circulation started. Use of barcodes had made the
life very simple due to added accuracy and speed. Besides speeding up the issue/return, printing reports, sending reminders also
become very easy. Circulation data also provides a very important insight into the book use pattern. Librarians should try to use this
data for research and development purpose.
3.3 Acquisition
Use of computers in acquisition remains a low priority area. Not many libraries are using computers in acquisition. On reason may
be the continuously reducing budget for purchase of books. But this area needs to be strengthened. Computerization at the stage can
help not only in order processing but also can be a very effective tool in budget control. You can allocate funds to different
departments based on a set formula, can send department heads about non availability of funds, can control over ordering and also
utilize the data entered at this stage for technical processing and OPAC.
3.4 Serial Control
Idiosyncracies involved in serial control affects the use of computers in serial control and hence the area is not very well representedSoftwares. The procedures developed by these softwares are so cumbersome that sometimes it looks easier to use normal method
rather than automation. However, this area provides very good stage for use of computers as it can help tracking the missing issues
very efficiently and provide the current awareness services and even the SDI services besides budget control.
3.5 Intranet
Making the information available on intranet is also growing popularity as it eliminates the need of installing the software on the
users’ terminals. Users can access the catalogue through intranet or they can find the status of the books issued to them through web
access. CD-ROM resources and other digital resources can be accessed on intranet. The beauty is that one need not be conversant with
the software as the web links are available through the web page. Growing installation of campus wide networks is also playing a
positive role in this direction.
3.6 Internet
Use of Internet for academic purposes is also increasing day by day. More and more libraries are putting their resources on Internet.
Internet is the medium both to access and disseminate information. Internet has emerged as a very big virtual library which has
information on practically every subject and in every media may it be text, audio or video. Libraries should use this facility to the best
of their capability. They should provide links to similar type of libraries through web pages. One very good use can be designing of
e-gates where user can have access to the electronic resources through a common user interface. I would like to mention that a number
of free e-journals are available on the Internet. The prominent among library and Information Science are ‘D-Lib Magazine’, Issues in
science and Technology Libraries”, “Cybermetrics” etc.
3.7 Digital Libraries:
Digital library has recently become the buzzword for librarians. In the last year most of the seminars and the conferences had ‘digital
libraries’ as their theme. Digital libraries can be of two types i.e. digital libraries of the digital text available in the market such as
e-journals, CD-ROM databases, e-books, software etc. or it can be developed from the printed text available in the library. If a library
takes a decision to develop a digital library of its collection specially theses, dissertations and old journals, it can solve the problem of
space and preservation both. But the decision about creating such decision is taken to be very carefully as it will prove a very costly
venture both in terms of money and manpower.
4. PROSPECTS
Having talked about the problems and areas of applications let us talk about future prospects. I can definitely say that the things are
changing for the good. Now University authorities are realizing that there is no way to escape library automation. They are finding
various ways to finance their library automation projects. Librarians are also realizing that they can not remain indifferent to the
change, otherwise they will be labeled outdated. One area of concern is the library science graduates being produced by our library
schools It is surprising that UGC is giving responsibility of refresher courses of library science to the library science school and not to
the libraries who are established themselves as advanced libraries and uses the technology far ahead than the library science schools.
Existing staff is getting rid of the fear of computerization. They are coming forward to learn and make themselves suitable to face the
challenges of the new millennium. Standardization is increasing and the better softwares are available.
By
Yogendra Singh
Librarian
Indian Institute of Technology
Roorkee-247667