How is the President of India elected?

As Pranab Mukherjee nears the end of his five-year presidential term, the Opposition parties are yet to prop up a consensus candidate while the government, too, is in consultations within its party and allies on a probable nominee.

The President cannot be elected by the people of the state themselves. If the case was such, the President could claim direct power of the people since they voted for her. In 1848, Louis Napolean, who was elected as head of state by a direct vote of the people, overthrew the French republic and claimed he was the emperor since he had been directly elected. Keeping this incident in mind, the President of India is elected indirectly.

But what does indirect mean?

The President of India is elected by an electoral college. This college comprises the elected representatives of the government that form the government after being elected in the state assembly and national elections. The citizens of the country directly elect these representatives. It is these elected representatives who then vote for the President, in theory representing the people who would ideally vote for the President. Nominated members of state assemblies and the two Houses are not allowed to participate in the presidential election as they have been nominated by the President herself. Issuing whips to garner votes for a particular candidate is also prohibited.

All MPs and MLAs have a certain number of votes

However, a lengthy calculation designates the value of votes of every elected MLA and MP. For the MLA, the number is decided by the total population of the state divided by the number of elected members to the legislative assembly, further divided by 1000. The population data is taken from the 1971 census. This census will be used until 2026.

For example, the total population of Madhya Pradesh in 1971 was 30,017,180. The total number of elected members of the legislative assembly is 230. So the value of vote of an MLA will be:

The value of the vote of an MP is decided by dividing the total value of votes of all MLAs of the whole country, divided by the total number of elected MPs in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

The total value of the state vote is calculated by multiplying the value of vote of one MLA with the total number of elected MLAs.

How do these MLAs and MPs vote?

Unlike a traditional ballot, where the voter casts one vote only for her selected candidate, a presidential election ballot does not follow this system. What it follows is the Single Transferable Vote system. According to this, each voter marks out her preference for the presidential candidate. If there are five candidates for example, the voter will give five preferences. It is mandatory to give a first preference as the vote will be declared invalid in its absence. However, if the voter doesn’t give other preferences, the vote will be considered valid.

Vote Quota

The vote quota has come about as a result of Proportional Representation which ensures equal representation to all groups. Simply casting votes or indicating preference is not enough as the person with the most number of votes or first preference does not win the presidential election. The total number of valid votes decide how many votes will a candidate need in order to be declared winner. This number is divided by two and added to one to form the benchmark of winning. For example, if there are 50,000 valid votes, then the candidate would require (50,000/2)+1, which is equal to 25,001 votes.

Should any candidate fail to reach the vote quota, the candidate with the minimum number of votes is eliminated and her votes are transferred to the other candidates on the basis of the second preference. If the vote quota is achieved, a winner emerges but if it doesn’t, the candidate with the least number of votes is eliminated again and others get her votes on the basis of the third preference.

Once the vote quota is achieved by one candidate, the winner is announced.

Consider this example. Out of four candidates, A, B, C, and D, the results of the first preference counting are:

A: 19,000

B: 8,000

C: 13,000

D: 10,000

In this case, candidate B will be eliminated and her votes will be distributed to the rest of the candidates on the basis of the second preference. Post this, suppose, A gets 3000 votes, C gets 2000 votes and D gets 3000 votes. The new results are:

A: 22,000

C: 15,000

D: 13, 000

Now, candidate D gets eliminated with, suppose, A getting 2,000 votes and C getting 11,000 votes.

A: 24,000

C: 26,000

Exceeding the vote quota, candidate C will be declared as the President of India.rashtrapati-bhavan-759.jpg

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Delnet Membership

DELNET was started at the India International Centre Library in January 1988 and was registered as a society in 1992. It was initially supported by the National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT), Department of Scientific and Industrial Reseach, Government of India. It was subsequently supported by the National Informatics Centre, Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India and the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

DELNET has been established with the prime objective of promoting resource sharing among the libraries through the development of a network of libraries. It aims to collect, store, and disseminate information besides offering computerised services to users, to coordinate efforts for suitable collection development and also to reduce unnecessary duplication wherever possible.

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online Gurmat Sangeet Library

For the first time, an online Gurmat Sangeet Library is being established to promote Sikh Sacred Music at global level in comparison to other music traditions. The primary objective of this project is to preserve the publications related to Gurmat Sangeet along with other contemporary relevant research material. For the promotion of Gurmat Sangeet, the process of collection of books, journals, magazines, souvenirs, audio recordings and information regarding Gurmat Sangeet is in continuous progress.

Primarily, the project has been conceived by Dr. Gurnam Singh, Founder Professor & Head, Gurmat Sangeet Chair, Punjabi University Patiala. In 2006, during his visit to Canada, he performed Keertan at various places for the promotion of Gurmat Sangeet Project which was highly appreciated by the community at global level. For the establishment of an Online Library in the loving memory of Bhai Sahib Bhai Randhir Singh whose entire life was dedicated to Gurbani Keertan and Naam Simran, under the leadership of honourable Master Ujagar Singh, Bhai Nagina Singh, Bhai Kanwaljit Singh and Bibi Gian Kaur and other members of Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Surrey, Canada raised a donation of rupees 20 lakh within an year for the accomplishment of this project.

On 14 Dec., 2007, Bhai Randhir Singh On-line Library was inaugurated by Vice-Chancellor Dr. Jaspal Singh along with former Jathedar Sri Akal Takht Sahib – Giani Joginder Singh Vedanti, Jathedar Sri Anandpur Sahib – Giani Tarlochan Singh, Bibi Jasbir Kaur Khalsa – Chairperson Sri Guru Gian Parkash Foundation, Singh Sahiba Bibi Inderjit Kaur Yogi, Master Ujagar Singh – Canada and Dr. Gurnam Singh.

Under the patronage of Dr. Jaspal Singh and leadership of Dr. Gurnam Singh and the Project Director Dr. Amritpal Kaur (Professor, Punjabi Literary Studies, Punjabi University Patiala), the members Dr. Harminder Kaur (Technical Assistant), Manpreet Singh (Technical Assistant), Amrinder Singh (Technical Assistant), Amanjot Kaur (Lecturer), Arvinder Singh (Technical Assistant), Satbir, Bikramjeet Singh and Joginder Kaur worked day and night for the accomplishment of this project.

A team of the technical experts including Dr. Kawaljit Singh (Director, Computer Centre), Dr. Gurpreet Lehal (Director, Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture), Dr. Dharamvir Sharma (Department of Computer Science), Dr. Saroj Bala (Chief Librarian) helped a lot in this project. Now, with the blessings of the Almighty, this project is being launched on 3rd December, 2010 by our worthy Vice-Chancellor Dr. Jaspal Singh.

Most of the material of the library is available in Punjabi language. Keeping in view the globalization perspective, the titles of various books, research journals and magazines have been transliterated in Roman Script. In the next phase of this project, we will provide the Gurmukhi version, the abstracts and more information relevant to the research work about Sikh Sacred Music.

Punjabi University has dedicated this service to the mankind. All researchers are welcome to this Online Library. For more information and help, you can contact us and your valuable suggestions are welcome.
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Membership of National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content (N-LIST)

The Project entitled “National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content (N-LIST)“, being jointly executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre and the INDEST-AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi provides for i) cross-subscription to e-resources subscribed by the two Consortia, i.e. subscription to INDEST-AICTE resources for universities and UGCINFONET resources for technical institutions; and ii) access to selected e-resources to colleges. The N-LIST project provides access to e-resources to students, researchers and faculty from colleges and other beneficiary institutions through server(s) installed at the INFLIBNET Centre. The authorized users from colleges can now access e-resources and download articles required by them directly from the publisher’s website once they are duly authenticated as authorized users through servers deployed at the INFLIBNET Centre.
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The Role and Impact of the Internet on Library and Information Services

Examines how the Internet impacts library operations such as library administration, collection development, cataloging, interlibrary loan and document delivery, reference services, and bibliographic instruction.

Since that time, the literature on the Internet and its impact on and role in libraries and research has exploded. A simple keyword search in Library Literature and Information Index, a primary electronic index of library and information science research literature, retrieves over 6,500 items related to the Internet. The dominance of the Internet not only provides great opportunities for libraries to provide better services, but also poses tremendous challenges to librarians and library and information science scholars. This volume includes discussions of current issues and trends, written by scholars and practitioners in the fields of library and information science, computer science, and computer engineering.

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Information Technology in Human Life

… and technology is one of the fundamental forces driving expansion of human … intellectual but practical influences and benefits. In that past 3o years, human behaviors, human life and human society have been and are going to be broadly reshaped by information technology . In the coming decades, the rapid advancements in …

Digital library

digital library at the CFL was the largest largest project I developed and refined while I was there. Originally, reprints and other digital documents where stored on the local network and could only be searched …